Introduction: The Practice of management is as old as human civilization because we can saw that our old construction of various monuments like Red Fort in India, Taj Mahal in India and if we move to Egypt then we can saw that Egyptian pyramid showing that the practice of management in the older days.
If we go to ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome and Indus-valley showed the marvelous practice of good management.
However, the study of management in a systematic way as distinct body of knowledge is only of recent origin.
That is why management is often described as “oldest of the arts and youngest of the sciences.”
As the above our discussion we have seen that the practice of management is not new it has been practiced for thousand years. So That is the little story of Management.
So, now let discussed about the scientific management theory who is given by Fedrick F. Taylor.
He was one of the first management consultants. Taylor was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive
Taylor summed up his efficiency techniques in his book “The Principles of Scientific Management”. Frederick Winslow Taylor should be ever remembered for his contribution to the management movement.
In an effort to address several organizational problems. Taylor developed the body of knowledge what is now called ‘scientific management’.
Taylor investigated the effective use of human beings at the shop floor level in the industrial organization.
He defined managing as the art of “Knowing exactly what you want men to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way”
For the doing work on the scientific way, he is often called the “Father of Scientific Management.”
Features of Scientific Management
Taylor conducted various experiments at the work place to find out how to human beings could be mad more efficient by standardizing the work which as follow:-
1- Separation of Planning and doing
Taylor introduced the separation of Planning from actual doing we know that in before Taylor’s Scientific management, a worker used to plan about how he had to work and what instruments were necessary for doing that work for the reason of being that this was creating lot of problems.
Taylor insisted that planning should be left to on the shoulder of supervisor’s and the workers should concentrate on work what work has been assigned to him.
2- Functional Foremanship
At above we have seen that all planning has been moved to shoulder of supervisor shoulder so from ding resulted in the development of supervision system.
For this purpose. Taylor developed the concept of functional foremanship based on specialization of functions.
3- Job analysis
According to Taylor the best way of doing a job is one which requires the least movement what is the mean of least movement, consequently less time and cost.
He analyzed the various jobs to find out the best way of doing things with the help of time and motion and fatigue study.
Time study involves the determination of time. A movement taken to complete.
Motion study involves the stud of movements which involved in doing job.
Fatigue study shows the amount and frequency of rest requirement in completing the work.
For this point, instruments and tools, period of work, amount of work, working condition and cost of the production have to be standardized on the basis of job analysis.
5. Scientific Selection and Training of Workers
Taylor suggested that workers should be selected on scientific basis which would their education, work experience, aptitude, physical, strength weakness etc. Apart from selection given to them training to make them efficient and effective.
6. Financial Incentive
Taylor also introduced this concept financial incentive to motivate workers to put in maximum efforts in their works. He introduced different scheme to give them incentive. He also suggested that wages should be based on individual performance.
7. Mental Revolution
Taylor strongly suggested a change in the attitude of employers and employees. Mutual conflict should be replaced by mutual cooperation which is beneficial to both.
Taylor argued mental revolution is the most important features of scientific management because in its absence, no principle of scientific management could be applied.
“The principles of Scientific Management” rested on the following four basic principles:-
The development of a true science of management, so that the best method for performing each task could be determined.
The scientific selection of the workers, so that each worker would be given responsibility for the task for which he or she was best suited.
The scientific education and development of the workers.
Intimate, friendly to-operation between management and labor.